Political Parties Class 10th Social Science
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Political Parties Class 10th Social Science: Introduction
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Political Parties Class 10th: What are Political Parties
Political parties are one of the most visible institutions in a democracy. It is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the
government. They agree on some policies and programs for society to promote
the collective good. They seek to implement these policies by winning popular support through elections.
A political party has three components:
Parties contest elections.
Parties have different policies and programs, and the voters choose from them.
A party reduces a vast multitude of opinions into a few basic positions which
Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Laws are debated and
passed in the legislature by the members of the various political parties.
Parties form and run governments.
Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the
government the way they want.
Parties shape public opinion.
Often, opinions in society are formed along the lines of the party.
Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes
implemented by governments.
Political parties are directly linked to the emergence of representative
Political parties help large-scale societies in developing a representative democracy.
They also help gather different views on various issues and present these to
They bring various representatives together so that a responsible government can
They support or restrain the government in the formulation of policies.
Only one party is allowed to control and run the government. E.g., The
Communist Party of China.
We cannot consider the one-party system a good option because this is not a
Power usually changes between two main parties. E.g., The United States of
America and the United Kingdom.
Only the two main parties have a serious chance of winning most seats for
forming the government.
Several other parties may exist, contest elections and win a few seats in the national
Several parties compete for power, and more than two parties have a reasonable
chance of coming to power either on their strength or in alliance with others.
E.g., India (The National Democratic Alliance, the United Progressive Alliance and
the Left Front).
The government is formed by various parties coming together in a coalition.
This system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political
A multi-party system may often lead to political instability.
The Party system evolves over a long time, depending on the nature of society, its social and
regional divisions, its history of politics, and its system of elections.
National Political Parties
Countrywide parties are called ‘national parties’ and have units in various
A party that secures at least six percent of total votes in the Lok Sabha elections or the
Assembly elections in four States and winning at least four seats in the Lok Sabha are
recognized as a national party.
There are six nationally recognized parties in India.
Political Parties Class 10th Social Science: Various Political Parties
Indian National Congress (INC)
Founded in 1885.
Dominated Indian politics, both at the national and state level, for several decades
after India’s Independence.
The ruling party was at the center till 1977 and then from 1980 to 1989. After 1989, its
A centrist party (neither rightist nor leftist) in its ideological orientation.
The party supports secularism and the welfare of weaker sections and minorities.
Supports new economic reforms.
Currently leads the ruling United Progressive Alliance coalition government at the
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
Founded in 1980 by reviving the erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
Cultural nationalism (or ‘Hindutva’) is the party’s ideology that defines its concept
of Indian nationhood and politics.
Wants full territorial and political integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India.
A uniform civil code for all people living in the country irrespective of religion and
a ban on religious conversions.
Its support base substantially increased in the 1990s.
Earlier limited to North and West and urban areas, the party expanded its support in the South, East, and the Northeast to rural areas.
Came to power in 1998 as the leader of the National Democratic Alliance, including
several state and regional parties.
Lost elections in 2004 and is the principal opposition party in the Lok Sabha.
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)
Formed in 1984 under the leadership of Kanshi Ram.
Seeks to represent and secure power for the Bahujan samaj, including the Dalits,
Adivasis, OBCs, and religious minorities.
Draws inspiration from the ideas and teachings of Sahu Maharaj, Mahatma Phule,
Periyar Ramaswami Naicker and Babasaheb Ambedkar.
It has its main base in the state of Uttar Pradesh and a substantial presence in
neighboring states like Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Delhi and
Formed government in Uttar Pradesh several times by taking the support of
different parties at different times.
Communist Party of India – Marxist (CPI-M)
Founded in 1964.
Believes in Marxism-Leninism.
Supports socialism, secularism, and democracy and opposes imperialism and
Accepts democratic elections as a valuable and helpful means for securing the
objectives of socio-economic justice in India.
Enjoys strong support in West Bengal, Kerala, and Tripura, especially among the
poor, factory workers, farmers, agricultural laborers, and the intelligentsia.
Critical of the new economic policies that allow free flow of foreign capital and
goods into the country. Has been in power in West Bengal without a break for 30
Currently supports the UPA government from outside, without joining the
Communist Party of India (CPI)
Formed in 1925.
Believes in Marxism-Leninism, secularism, and democracy.
Opposed to the forces of secessionism and communalism.
Accepts parliamentary democracy as a means of promoting the interests of the
working class, farmers, and the poor.
Became weak after the split in the party in 1964 that led to the formation of the
Significant presence in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.
Its support base has gradually declined over the years.
Advocates the coming together of all left parties for building a solid left front.
Currently supports UPA government from outside.
Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)
Formed in 1999 following a split in the Congress party.
Espouses democracy, Gandhian secularism, equity, social justice, and federalism.
Wants that high offices in government be confined to natural-born citizens of the
A major party in Maharashtra and has a significant presence in Meghalaya, Manipur, and Assam.
A coalition partner in the state of Maharashtra in alliance with the Congress.
Since 2004, a member of the United Progressive Alliance.
Political Parties Class 10th: State Parties
A party that secures at least 6 percent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative
Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognized as a State party.
These parties are all Indian parties that have succeeded only in some states and
National parties are compelled to form alliances with state parties.
Challenges to Political Parties
Lack of internal democracy
There is a tendency in political parties toward the concentration of power in one or
few leaders at the top.
Parties do not keep membership registers, do not hold organizational meetings, and
do not conduct regular internal elections.
Ordinary party members do not get sufficient information on what happens
inside the party.
More than loyalty to party principles and policies, personal loyalty to the leader
Those leaders have an unfair advantage of
favoring people close to them or even their family members.
In many parties, top positions are always controlled by the members of one family.
This is bad for democracy since people with inadequate experience or
popular support come to occupy positions of power.
The growing role of money and muscle power
Parties tend to nominate those candidates who have or can raise lots of money.
Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties tend to influence the party’s policies and decisions.
In some cases, parties support criminals who can win elections.
The fourth challenge is that parties often do not seem to offer a meaningful
choice to the voters.
A decline in the ideological differences among parties in most parts of the world has
lessened voters’ choices.
People cannot elect different leaders because the same leaders keep shifting from one party to another.
Reformation of Political Parties
The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing parties.
Now, if any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she will lose her seat in the legislature.
MPs and MLAs have to accept the party leader’s decision.
The Supreme Court has ordered to the reduction of the influence of money and criminals.
Every candidate who contests elections must file an affidavit giving details of his/her
property and criminal cases pending against him.
The Election Commission has ordered the political parties to hold their organizational
elections and file income tax returns.
Suggestions to Reform Political Parties
Laws should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties.
Political parties must give one-third of the total number of tickets to women
The decision-making bodies of the party should provide a quota for women.
The government should fund the parties to support their election expenses.
NCERT Solutions For Class 10th Political Parties
Q.1 State the various functions political parties perform in a democracy.
Political parties’ functions in a democracy are as follows:
a) Parties contest elections: In nearly every democratic country, the elections are mainly fought between candidates representing different political parties. In India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections.
b) Different policies and programs: There are a large number of opinions of different people, and in a democracy, a large number of similar opinions have to be grouped to provide a direction in which the government can formulate policies.
c) Parties make laws for the country. As we all know that all the laws that are formed are passed by the legislature but indirectly are formed by the political parties as most of the members belong to a particular party.
d) Parties form and run government: Political Parties, after winning the elections by recruiting and training leaders, form and run their government
e) Parties play the role of the opposition: Parties who fail to win in the elections play the role of opposition parties. They voice different views and criticize the government for its failures or wrong.
Q2. What are the various challenges faced by political parties?
The challenges faced by the political parties are as follows:
a) There is a tendency in political parties toward the concentration of power in one or a few leaders at the top. Ordinary members do not get sufficient information on what happens inside the party. Leaders make maximum decisions in the name of the party. i.e. Lack of Internal Democracy is a big challenge faced by political parties.
b) There also have been dynastic successions in many political parties, which often deprive the parties of appropriate leadership.
c) Most parties focus only on winning elections; they tend to use shortcuts to win elections. This hampers development and is against the spirit of democracy.
d) Due to a lack of ideological differences between the political parties, many parties do not offer a meaningful choice to the voters.
Q.3 Suggest some reforms to strengthen parties to perform their functions well.
Some of the reforms which can strengthen the political parties are as follows: a) Parties should be asked to nominate women candidates for at least one-third of the seats in the elections. This will also maintain gender equality in society.
b) Regulation of internal affairs of various parties should be made necessary, and a law should be made to help regulate internal affairs.
c) To eliminate lobbying and unfair competition for funding, state funding should be formed for the elections. The government should also give parties money to support their election expenses.
d) A law should regulate parties’ internal affairs, making them more transparent.
Political Parties Class 10th: Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which of the following are the most visible institutions in a democracy?
(b) Political parties
Ans. (b) Political parties
2. How many political parties are registered with the election commission of India?
(a) Less than 100
(b) Between 100 to 500
(c) Between 500 to 750
(d) More than 750
Ans. (d) More than 750
3. A Political party has to satisfy the following criteria to be recognized as a national
(a) 6% votes of total votes in Lok sabha or assembly elections of four status
(b) At least 6 Lok sabha seats
(c) 12% votes of the total votes in Lok sabha
(d) At least 12 Lok sabha seats
Ans. (a) 6% votes of total votes in Lok sabha or assembly elections of four status
4. How many political parties were recognized as National parties in India in 2006?
Ans. (a) 06
5. How many Lok sabha constituencies are there in India at present?
Ans. (a) 540
6. Area-wise, which is the largest Lok Sabha constituency in India?
(a) Karol Bag
(c) Mumbai Cart
Ans. (d) Ladakh
7. The Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP) came to power in 1998 as the leader of
(a) United Progressive Alliance
(b) Left front
(c) National Democratic
(d) None of these
Ans. (c) National Democratic
8. Which party system does India follow—
(a) Single-party system
(b) Two-party system
(c) Multi-party system
(d) All of them
Ans. (c) Multi-party system
9. What is Bye-election?
(a) Elections held to fill a vacancy caused by the death or any other house.
(b) Election held after a specific period.
(c) Election held to farm the new govt.
(d) Election held in between the fixed term of the house.
Ans. a) Elections held to fill a vacancy caused by the death or any other house.
10. Who is the founder of the Bahujan Samajwadi Party (BSP)
(a) Jyotiba Phule
(b) Kanshi Ram
(c) B. R. Ambudkar
(d) Maya Vati
Ans. b) Kanshi Ram
Political Parties Class 10th: Short Answer Type Questions
1. Who exercise real power in the Democracy?
Ans. Citizens of the country
2. What is Partisan?
Ans. A person who is firmly committed to a party, group, or faction. Partisanship is marked by a tendency to take a side and an inability to take a balanced view of an issue.
3. What are bye-elections?
Ans. Elections are held to fill a vacancy caused by the death of any elected member or
any other reason, such as defection.
4. Name the oldest recognized Political Party of India?
Ans. Indian National Congress
5. Which Political party draws inspiration from the Ideas and teachings of Mahatma
Gandhi, J Phule and Sahu Maharaj?
Ans. Bahujan Samaj Party.
6. Name the National Political Party against the conversion of religion?
Ans. Bharatiya Janta Party
7. Name the political Party that wants full territorial and political integration of
Jammu and Kashmir with India?
Ans. Bharatiya Janta Party
8. What are leftist Parties?
Ans. Left often refers to those who are in favor of the poor, downtrodden section and
support government policies for the benefit of these sections.
9. When was CPI-M founded?
Ans. . Communist party of India-Marxist was founded in 1964.
10. What is a Multi-Party system?
Ans. If several parties compete for power and more than two parties have reasonable chances of coming to power either on their strength or in alliance with others, we call it
a multi-party system.
11. Which type of party system exists in China?
Ans. One party system
12. Name the regional political party predominant in Nagaland?
Ans. Nagaland People’s Front
13. The United Kingdom is an example of which party system.
Ans. Two party system
14. Which institution has passed an order making it necessary for political parties to
hold their organizational election and file their income tax return?
Ans. Supreme Court
15. What do you understand from the ruling party?
Ans. The political party that runs government is a ruling party.
16. What is an alliance?
Ans. When several parties join hands to contest elections.
17. What is a symbol of the Samajwadi Party?
18. Which is the oldest recognized political party of India?
Ans. Indian National Congress
19. How many political parties are recognized by the Election Commission?
Ans. 750 political parties
20. Which state has the maximum recognized regional parties?
Ans. Tamil Nadu
21. Why do we need political parties?
Ans. 1. Political parties are easily one of the most visible institutions in a democracy.
2. For most ordinary citizens, political parties are equal to democracy.
3. Political parties helped in making public opinion and farming the govt.
22. Describe the merits of a multi-party system in thru points.
Ans. 1. More than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their strength or in alliance with others
2. This system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.
3. In India, we have a multi-party system and a coalition govt. for the last 15 years, which benefits all sections of the population.
23. What are the characteristics of a political party?
Ans. 1. It is a group of people coming together to contest elections and share power.
2. It agrees on some policies and programmers for the society to promote
3. It lends to implement its policies by viewing popular support through elections.
4. It is known by which part it stands for, which policies it supports and whose interest it
24. What is the role of the opposition party in a democracy
Ans. 1. Constructive criticism of govt.
2. Restriction of the arbitrariness of the ruling party
3. Safeguard liberty and rights of the people
4. Well prepared to form govt.
5. Expression of public opinion
25. Give an account of the functions (any four) of political parties
Ans. 1. They educate the masses through their meetings and propaganda about
various problems facing the country
2. Helps in the formation of public opinion
3. They contest elections and try to get the maximum number of their candidates elected
4. They serve as a link between the govt. and the people
5. The party which gets the absolute majority forms the govt. others form opposition
26. “The rise of political parties is linked to the emergence of
representative democracies.” Comment on the statement.
Ans. 1. As society becomes large and complex, they also need some agenesis with different views on various issues to present these to the government.
2. They need ways to bring various representatives together so that responsible government. can be formed.
3. They need a mechanism to support and restrain the govt. make policies, justify or oppose them.
Political Parties Class 10th: Extra Question And Answer
1. What are the main functions of a political party?
Ans. 1. To contest the election
2. Forming policies and programs
3. Making laws
4. Parties form and fun govt.
5. To play an active role in opposition
6. Shaping public opinion
7. Access to govt. machinery and welfare schemes
2. What are the challenges between political parties in India?
Ans. The following points can be given with an explanation of the challenges of political parties in
1. Lack of internal democracy
2. Lack of transparency
3. Use of money and muscle power
4. Not providing meaningful choice to the voter
3. Mention the features of the Congress party in India?
Ans. 1. Congress party was founded in 1885 and has experienced many splits.
2. It was the ruling party at the center till 1977 and then in 1880-89, 2000 to till date
3. This party supports secularism and the welfare of weaker sections and minorities.
4. It supports new economic reforms but with a human face.
5. It emerged as the largest party with 145 seats in the Lok Sabha elections in 2004.
6. It currently leads the ruling united progressive alliance (UPA) coalition govt. at the center.
4. Name six National Political Parties of India along with their symbols.
Ans. 1. Indian National Congress Hand
2. Bharatiya Janta Party Lotus
3. Bahujan Samaj Party Elephant
4. Communist Party of India-(Marxist) Sickle, Hammer, and Star
5. Communist Party of India Sickle and Wheat
6. Nationalist Congress Party Clock
5. Describe a political party’s requirements to become a national political
Ans. 1. The party has to secure at least six percent of the total votes in the Lok Sabha
2. Six percent of the total votes in the state Assembly elections and winning at least four seats in the Lok Sabha protected against the marketing of goods and delivery of services that are hazardous to life and property.
6. Write down the name of the regional political party dominant in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and West Bengal.
Ans. 1. Andhra Pradesh- Telugu Desam Party (1982), Telangana Rashtra Samiti(2001)
2. Karnataka- Janata Dal (Secular)1999
3. West Bengal- Forward Bloc (1940), Revolutionary Socialist Party (1940), Trinamool
7. Why are symbols allotted to political parties by the election commission of India? Give reason.
Ans. 1. For the recognition of political parties, symbols are required.
2. It means the party is large and established.
3. Only the official candidates of the political party can use it.
4. Voters can cast their votes easily.
5. One can easily recognize that the party is either national or regional.
8. What is a political party? What are the components of a political party?
Ans. A political party is an association of people who come together to contest elections and are keen to hold power in the government. Political parties put forward different policies and programs the voters choose for them. Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Following are the components
1. The Leaders.
2. The Active Members.
3. The followers
9. Explain the constitutional measures to counter challenges faced by political parties.
Ans. 1. The constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing
parties. This is called anti-defection law.
2. The Supreme Court made it mandatory for every candidate to file an affidavit giving
details of his property and criminal cases pending against him.
3. The Election Commission made it necessary for political parties to hold elections and file their Income tax Returns.
10. Write down the parameters laid down by the Election Commission of India to recognize the State Political Parties and National Political Parties.
Ans. 1. Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission.
2. The party members aim to highlight the regional interest of a state party. Conversely, a national party gives due importance to national interests.
3. State party: A party that secures at least six percent of the total votes in the election to The legislative assembly of a state and wins at least two seats is recognized as a state party.
4. National party: A party secures at least six percent of the total votes in the Lok Sabha
elections or Assembly elections in four states and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha is recognized as a national party.
We have penned down Political Parties Class 10th Social Science to help the students with the notes of Political Parties Class 10th to help the students of class 10th with the lesson Political Parties Social Science Class 10th with the chapter to grasp the topic. We provide NCERT Solutions For Class 10th Political Parties to make them explicit.