We are sharing an article about Note Making Class 12th to help the students to be able to master the technique of note-making, and it will hence help you all to attempt note-making questions during examinations. We are sharing Note -making along with the introduction of the topic and sample questions to try on your own.
Note Making: Introduction
Note-making is an advanced writing skill that is gaining importance due to the knowledge
explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity that combines several skills.
Note Making Format, Examples
I. How to make notes:
1. Read the passage carefully.
2. Give a heading to your work. The heading will be based on the following considerations.
(i) What is the main idea of the passage?
(ii)Frame a heading based on the main idea. (iii) Write it in the middle of
3. Give subheadings
(i) How has the main idea been presented and developed?
(ii)Are there two or three subordinate/associated ideas? (iii) Frame subheadings
based on these.
4. Points are to be noted under each subheading.
Are there further details or points of the subtitles that you wish to keep in these notes? These
are called points. Points may have subpoints.
5. All subheadings should be at a uniform distance from the margin.
6. Indenting – Points should also be at the same distance away from the margin.
7. Do not write complete sentences.
8. Abbreviations should be used.
II. Help with abbreviations:
1. Use standard abbreviations and symbols as far as possible.
(i) Capitalise the first letters of the names of states, countries, or organizations. For example:
UP, USA, UK, and UNO.
(ii) Common abbreviations
Sc. (for science), Mr, Mrs, Dr, govt, BSc, etc.
(iii) Common symbols such as i.e., e.g., Rx, /, , +ve, -ve, → (leading to) ↑ (rising), ↓ (falling), =,
(iv) Measurements and figures – 100′′, 100′, 100 kg, 100 mm, 100 mL.
2. Make your own abbreviations.
(i) Keep the main sounds of the words: edn (education), program. (program). (ii) It is an excellent practice to keep the first few and the last letters of the word, such as education –
edu’n, developing – dev’ing. Retain the suffix so that later when you are going over the
notes, you may recall the complete form of the word, for example, ed’nal (educational), prog (progressive).
3. Take the following caution:
(i) Do not get overenthusiastic about abbreviations.
(ii) You should not abbreviate every word.
(iii) One abbreviation in one point is enough.
(iv) As a general rule, the heading should not be abbreviated. (v) You may use abbreviations in
III. Your notes should look like this:
(i) Indenting is essential.
Notice that indenting, i.e. shifting from the margin, has been used to clearly indicate subheadings, points, and subpoints. Subheadings, though separated by points, occur below one another. Similarly, points and subpoints should also come below one another. Such use of indenting gives your notes a visual character. You can see the main idea and its various aspects at a glance.
Note-making is an informal exercise as it is meant for your use only. You will not present a
formal document in note form. Notes will be developed into a more formal piece of writing. Since notes are informal and are meant for your use only, you can abbreviate long words or use accepted abbreviations and symbols.
Writing a summary: The summary is an abstract of the passage. Expand your heading and subheadings and write down the ideas developed in the passage in the specified word limit.
1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: [NCT 2018]
1. Flexibility and mobility are essential to reduce the risk of injuries and
generally feel better. Living a nine-to-five desk life can be demanding on health and wellness. Here is how you can keep the most common problems at bay.
2. Even if you are not exercising, you must maintain the correct posture
and sit at your desk in the right way. It is essential that your chair is placed correctly and your legs are not left hanging. Proper alignment ensures that your neck and back are not strained. Exercises and abdominal crunches two to three times a week can strengthen the core. It will help take the pressure off your back and will make it easier to maintain good posture. Chairs with a back that support your upper back are preferable for those who work long hours in front of screens.
3. Constant typing, writing reports, and answering e-mails can exert your wrists, leading to long-term damage. The frequency of your use and how you position your wrists at your
keyboard can be a reason. The telltale signs of exertion would be a tingling sensation or
numbness. One should not ignore initial signs. Make sure that you rest your wrist at regular intervals. To relieve tension quickly, fold your hands in a NAMASTE in front of your chest with elbows moving out and lower your hands till you feel a good stretch in your wrists. Also, rotating your fists inside and outside relieves strained wrists.
4. Since those who work on desks spend a lot of time looking at a computer screen, they
risk straining their eyes. This may also lead to dry eyes and fatigue. Poor eyesight is
the result of continued and improper exposure to screens. Keeping the computer screen at an optimal distance helps minimize strain on the eyes. The screen shouldn’t be too close or too far. To ease eye strain, use good lighting and make it a point to look at a distance away from your screen every twenty to thirty minutes.
(a) based on your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and
Use recognizable abbreviations and a format you consider suitable. Also, supply a title to it.
(b) Write a summary of the passage in less than 80 words using the notes made.
(a) Health and Wellness for Desk users
1. Correct posture
1.1 Place chair correctly for neck and back
1.2 Don’t hang legs
1.3 Excises & abdominal crunches
1.4 Choose chairs with support from the upper back
2. Maintaining wrist flexibility
2.1 the wrong position can cause wrist damage and cause tingling 2.2. Relax wrists reg’ly in Namaste position and stretch 2.3 Rotate wrists inside and outside.
3. Preventing eye strain
3.1 Eye strain can cause dry eyes and fatigue
3.2 Keep computer screen at an optimal distance to prevent poor eyesight
3.3 Use good light’g
3.4 Look at a distant spot every 20-30 minutes.
Key to the Abbreviations Used
1. corr’ly – correctly
2. ex’cises – exercises
3. abdom’l – abdominal
4. damg – damage
5. reg’ly – regularly
6. light’g – lighting
Desk users risk losing flexibility, mobility, and wellness due to long working hours.
A good selection of office chairs and proper posture is essential for neck and back health.
Damage to the wrists can be prevented by exercising them frequently. Eyes are also at risk due to looking at the computer screen for a long. Optimal distance from the screen will prevent fatigue, dry eyes, and poor vision. Good lighting is essential. One should look away from the screen every 20-30 minutes.
2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: [NCT 2017]
1. Jahangir was born on 30 August 1569 to Akbar, the Mughal Emperor, and his Hindu
wife, Jodha Bai. He was crowned on 24 October 1605. In the twenty-two years, he was
Until his death on 28 October 1627, the Emperor had many battles to fight and many rebellions to suppress. But he always found time for his most fantastic hobby- studying animals and plants. He was an avid bird watcher, or an ornithologist as he would be called now, and a keen naturalist. The care and accuracy with which Jahangir described various characteristics of animals and birds, their geographical distribution and behavior, would have credited a full-time naturalist. His observations are recorded in his memoirs, the Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri.
2. Jahangir had a small zoo, and he would spend hours-sometimes days and nights
together-on his observations. For the first time in the history- of ornithology, he noted how sarus cranes mate, brood over their eggs in turn, and how chicks are hatched and taken care of. He also observed one human quality in this bird: the parents love their eggs and chicks and each other.
3. The Emperor had several famous painters in his court. When he came across a rare
animal, bird, or plant, he would instruct an artist to draw it. The painter who excelled in this art was Ustad Mansur. For modern ornithologists, Jahangir’s collection of paintings provides a strikingly accurate description of the natural history of the day. Unfortunately, most of these paintings can no longer be found in India. With the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, foreign adventures looted this treasure. Most of the paintings were thus lost.
4. In 1958, a Russian researcher, A Ivanov, created a sensation when he discovered a rare
portrait of the dodo, a large non-flying pigeon-like bird, which became extinct about three
centuries ago. This portrait was found in a collection of paintings at the Institute of Orientalists of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. There was no way of identifying the painter, but the style, without doubt, was that of Ustad Mansur. There is evidence to show that the portrait of the Mauritian dodo was presented to Emperor Jahangir around 1624. Over three centuries after their death, Jahangir and his dodo dramatically reappearance in the world of ornithology!
5. Jahangir also loved gardens, but his dissertations in botany and horticulture were mostly confined to how a lotus traps hornets or how saffron sprouts from soil. However, he was responsible for cultivating high-altitude trees such as the cypress, juniper, pine, and Javanese sandal on plains.
6. Jahangir had many other scientific interests. He once conducted an experiment to show
that the air of Mahmudabad (in Gujrat) was healthier than that of Ahmedabad. He was
fascinated by the movement of the stars and the planets and used to record the occurrence of solar and lunar eclipses regularly. When a comet appeared, he recorded its tail’s growth and decay.
(a) Based on your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points. Also, suggest
a suitable title.
(b) Write a summary of the passage in less than 80 words using the notes made.
(a) Emperor Jahangir: The Naturalist
1. An ornithologist & animal enthusiast
(i) described ch’stics distribution & behavior of animals & birds
(ii) had a private zoo – observed sarus cranes’ behavior as families
2. Documentation of observations
(i) rare animals, birds, and plants were painted by skilled artists-Ustad Mansur,
(ii) recorded observations in autobiography ‘Tuzuk-i-Jahangir i’ (iii) Mughal
paintings looted by foreign adven’rs.
(iv) Portrait of Mauritian Dodo (presented to Emperor Jahangir in 1624) found by Russian
researcher A. Ivanov in 1958
3. Other sci’fic interests
(i) wrote dissertations on botany, horticulture
(ii) cultiv’n of high altitude trees in plains
(iii) expts on air
(iv) movem’t of stars & planets, eclipses & comets
Key to abbreviations:
ch’stics – characteristics
adven’rs – adventurers
sc’fic – scientific cultiv’n –
cultivation expts –
experiments move’mt –
Emperor Jahangir was a keen naturalist. He loved to observe birds and animals and had the rare ones painted by skilled artists like Ustad Mansur. A portrait of an extinct Maurition Dodo was discovered by A. Ivanoc, a Russian researcher.
Jahangir had a small zoo, where he observed birds and animals, notably the sarus crane. He noted his observations on the behavior and geographical distribution in his autobiography Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri. Besides, he had an interest in horticulture, stars and planets, eclipses, and even in the purity of air in various cities.
We have penned down Note-making for Class 12th students to help them to make notes and attempt questions of note-making during examinations. Note-making is helpful for the students to help them make notes on various topics. I hope you will like our efforts. Happy Learning!