We are providing you with the short and detailed summary of Electoral Politics Class 9th Social Science along with the NCERT Solutions Electoral Politics Class 9th Social Science to help the students to clear their concepts before the examination. Students would be able to know the gist of the chapter. We have highlighted the importance of elections, the need for elections, and how to make elections democratic. We have also focussed on the role of the Election Commission.
Electoral Politics Class 9th Social Science: Elections
It is a mechanism or method by which people of a country have the power to choose their representatives at regular intervals. If people are not satisfied with the governing or working of the government, they have the right to change it.
Procedure of Elections
The election procedure can be understood by the real example of the Haryana Assembly elections. It will show how candidates standing in elections become representatives and how power can be removed from their hands.
Assembly Election in Haryana
By the formation of the new party lok dal, Haryana had been ruled by Congress, and at that time, Chaudhary Devi Lal was on the opposite side and led a movement called Nyaya Yudh and formed a party called Lok Dal.
Election Campaign of Devi Lai In the 1987 Assembly election, Devi Lai promised voters that if his party won, he would give loans to farmers and small businessmen.
Voters favored Lok Dal As people were unhappy with the existing government, they were attracted by Devi Lai’s promise. They voted in favor of Lok Dal, and its partners won 76 out of 90 seats.
Results Announced Lok Dal won 60 seats that’s why it had a clear majority in the – Assembly. As the election result was announced, the existing Chief Minister of Congress resigned.
Devi Lai became Chief Minister and the newly elected Members of Legislative Assembly (MLAs) of Lok Dal chose Devi Lai as their leader. The Governor invited Devi Lal to be the new Chief Minister. After three days after the election result, he took the oath. Then his government issued a government order to give loans to small farmers, agricultural laborers, and small businessmen.
Need for Elections
Elections are needed to elect representatives, and democracy would not hold its importance without regular elections. In the absence of elections, all the people have to sit and take all the decisions together, which is not possible in the case of large and diverse nations.
- The elections are needed for any representative democracy because
- We need to assess people based on education, knowledge, or experience.
- They need to analyze the people whether they like them or not.
- They ensure that representatives rule as per the wishes; if they do not, they will be thrown out of the government.
In an election, the voters make many choices like
- They can choose who will make laws for them.
- They can choose who will form the government and take major decisions.
- They can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and lawmaking.
What Makes An Election Democratic?
Elections are held in all the democratic nations as well as in non-democratic in many different ways. But we have the minimum conditions which make an election democratic
- Everyone should have the right to choose a representative. It means everyone has one vote, and every vote has equal value.
- Political parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and offer some real choices to the voters.
- The choices should be offered at regular intervals. For that, elections must be held regularly after a certain period.
- The candidates preferred by the people only should get elected.
- Elections are conducted in a free and fair manner where people choose those representatives whom they wish.
Without competition, elections would not hold any meaning and become meaningless. Different parties participate in the elections to gain the people’s confidence and, ultimately, the vote of voters.
This electoral competition has many demerits like
- It creates groups and party politics everywhere.
- Parties often use dirty tricks to win.
- Pressure to win does not allow them to execute long-term policies.
- Slowly, competition leads to unhealthy and that is why they do not want to enter and participate in political competition.
The electoral competition also has some merits like
Regular elections give incentives to the parties and their leaders; if they cannot satisfy the voters with their manifesto, they will not be able to win again.
- Regular electoral competition provides incentives to political parties and leaders. If they can satisfy the voters with their work, they will be able to win again.
- If a political party is motivated only by the desire to be in power, even then, it will be forced to serve the people.
- It reveals the real motive of political parties.
- It gives choices to voters to choose among the best.
Electoral Politics Class 9th: System Of Elections In India
In India, Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha elections are held at regular intervals i.e. every five years. After 5yrs, the term comes to an end. Elections are held regularly on the same day or within a few days. This is said to be a General election. Sometimes an election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by the death or resignation of a member. This is said to be a by-election.
- India is based on a system where the country is divided into constituencies called electoral constituencies for elections. Every voter who lives in an area elects their representative. every vote has one equal value.
- For the Lok Sabha election, India is divided into 543 constituencies. The representative elected from each constituency is called a Member of Parliament or an MP.
- Each state is divided into a specific number of assembly constituencies for the Vidhan Sabha election. The elected representative of the eaph assembly constituency is called the Member of Legislative Assembly or an MLA.
The constitution makers were worried about the weaker sections that might be that could not stand a good chance in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies.
If that happens, our Parliament and Assemblies would be deprived of the voice of a significant section of our population. That would make our democracy less representative and less democratic.
Reservation for SC and ST
The Makers of the constitution also thought for the weaker sections and reserved constituencies who belonged to Scheduled Castes(SC), and Scheduled Tribes (ST).
Reservation in Lok Sabha/ District/Local Level
A few seats in Lok Sabha are reserved for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs). This number is in proportion to their share in the total population.
In the year 2012, 84 seats were reserved for the Scheduled Castes and 47 for the Scheduled Tribes (in Lok Sabha).
However, the proportion of seats reserved varies from state to state. Similarly, one-third of the seats are reserved in rural and urban local bodies for women candidates.
As soon as the constituencies are decided, the list of eligible voters is prepared much before the election and given to everyone. This list is officially called the electoral roll or voter’s list. The right to vote falls under the Universal Adult Franchise which states that all citizens aged 18 years or above can vote in an election irrespective of caste, creed, sex, religion etc.
Maintaining of Voters’ list
Maintaining a voter’s list is the responsibility of the government to get the eligible names of the voters. As soon as the new persons attain the voting age the list is made and their names are added to it, names of dead persons, or who have moved out or already dead are removed from the list.
Election Photo Identity Card (EPIC)
The voters are required to carry this card when they go to vote so that it is ensured that no one can vote in place of anyone. The card has not been compulsory and eligible persons can show other proofs also like driving license, ration card or aadhar card.
Nomination Of Candidates
The system of our country provides almost no restrictions on anyone to contest the election. This only makes any election a democratic election.
Anyone who can be a voter can also become a candidate in elections. The only difference between being a voter is that the minimum age is 18 years, while to be a candidate in the election the minimum age is 25 years. There are also some other restrictions on criminals but these apply in very extreme cases.
Political parties nominate their candidates who get the party support and symbol. Party’s nomination is often called a Party Ticket. The candidate has to fill out a nomination form and give some money as a security deposit.
Moreover, every candidate has to make a legal declaration giving full details of
- Educational qualifications of the candidate
- Details of the assets and liabilities of the candidate and his/her family; and
- Severe criminal cases pending against the candidate.
The information provided has to be made public to provide an opportunity to the voters to make their decision based on the information provided by the candidates.
Educational Qualifications for Candidates
There is no educational qualification for candidates for being an MP or an MLA. However, the relevant qualification for candidates is the ability to understand people’s concerns, and problems and to represent people’s interests.
Campaign means promoting the policies and alluring offers and promises the candidates to make to the voters to fulfill if they win. This way, the voters decide whom they should choose.
It takes two weeks before the announcement of the final list. During this period, candidates can contact their political leaders, can hold meetings, and mobilize their supporters. They also prepare manifestos and focus attention on some big issues to attract the people to gain votes.
Slogans Given by Different Political Parties
Some of the successful slogans given by different political parties in various elections are given below
- The Congress party led by Indira Gandhi gave the slogan of ‘Garibi Hatao’ (Remove poverty) in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971. The party promised to reorient all government policies to remove poverty from the country.
- ‘Save Democracy’ was the slogan given by Janata Party in the next Lok Sabha election held in 1977. His party promised to undo the excesses committed during the Emergency and restore civil liberties.
- The Left Front used the slogan of ‘Land to the Teller’ in the West Bengal Assembly elections held in 1977.
- ‘Protect the Self-Respect of the Telugus’ was the slogan used by N.T. Rama Rao, the leader of the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh Assembly elections in 1983.
Code of Conduct and Laws
To regulate the election campaign, there are some election laws. According to these laws, no party or candidate can
- bribe or threaten voters,
- appeal to them in the name of caste or religion,
- use government resources for election campaigns and
- spend more than Rs. 25 lakh in a constituency for a Lok Sabha election or Rs. 10 lakh in a constituency in an Assembly Election.
According to this, no party or candidate can
- use any place of worship for election propaganda
- use government vehicles, aircraft and officials for elections
- Once elections are announced, ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any project, take any big policy decision, or promise to provide public facilities.
When the polling day arrives, every person whose name is on the voter’s list can go to a nearby polling booth and cast his/her vote. Once the voter enters, the election officer, after identifying him/her, puts a mark on the voter’s finger and allows him/her to cast his/her vote.
A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the names of the contesting candidates along with party name and symbols are listed.
Now Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) are used to record votes. The machine shows the names of the candidates and the party symbols. The voter has to press the button against the name of the candidate, he/she wants to cast his/her vote.
Counting of Votes
After the polling day, EVMs are sealed and taken to a secure place and on an affixed date , all the EVMs are opened and counting votes begins. The candidate who secures the highest number of votes from a constituency is declared elected. Within a few hours of counting, all the results are declared, and who will form the next government becomes clear. This event is reported by television channels, radio and newspapers.
What Makes Elections In India Democracy?
Many factors ensure that elections held in India are democratic. An independent body ‘Election Commission’ responsible to conduct elections is formulated in the Constitution of India.
Independent Election Commission
In India, elections are conducted by an independent body i.e. EC. The Chief Election Commission (CEC) is appointed by the President of India.
Powers of Election Commission Potters enjoyed by dying Election Commission ate.
- It makes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections, from the announcement of elections to the declaration of results.
- It implements the code of conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it.
- During the election period, the Election Commission can order the government to follow some guidelines to prevent using and misusing governmental power.
- When on election duty, government officers work under the control of the Election Commission and not the government.
- When election officials believe polling is unfair in some booths or even an entire constituency, they order a repoll.
The participation and enthusiasm of people in an election is another criterion to check the quality of elections.
If the election process is not free or fair, people will not continue to participate in the exercise. People’s participation in elections is usually measured by voter turnout figures. Turnout indicates the percent of eligible voters who actually cast their vote. In India, there is a greater voter turnout of poor illiterate people compared to western democracies.
Acceptance of Election Outcome
The outcome of elections-the final test of the free and fairness of it. If elections are not free or fair, the outcome always favours the powerful. In such a situation, the ruling parties do not lose elections. Usually, the losing party does not accept the outcome of a rigged election.
The outcome of India’s election speaks for itself
- The ruling parties routinely lose elections in India at the national and state levels.
- In the US, an incumbent or sitting elected representative rarely loses an election. But in India, about half of the sitting MPs or MLAs lose elections.
- Candidates who are known to have spent a lot of money on buying votes and those with Known criminal connections often lose elections.
- Except for some disputed elections, the defeated party usually accepts the electoral outcomes as ‘people’s verdict’.
Challenges to Free and Fair Elections
The challenges to free and fair elections are listed as follows
- Candidates and parties with a lot of money may not be sure of their victory, but they enjoy an unfair advantage over smaller parties and independents.
- Some candidates with criminal records are able to secure party tickets from major parties due to their political connections.
- Some families tend to dominate political parties; a tendency for the dynastic rule is very common.
- Elections offer only little choice to ordinary citizens. All the major parties are quite similar to each other both in policies and practice.
- Smaller parties and independent candidates suffer a huge disadvantage compared to bigger parties regarding money, power and organizational support.
NCERT Solutions Electoral Politics Class 9th Social Science
- Which of the following statements about the reasons for conducting elections are false?
- Elections enable people to judge the performance of the government.
- People select the representative of their choice in an election.
- Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary.
- People can indicate which policies they prefer.
- Elections enable people to evaluate the performance of the judiciary.
2 Which of these is not a good reason to say that Indian elections are democratic?
- India has the largest number of voters in the world.
- India’s Election Commission is very powerful.
- In India, everyone above the age of 18 has a right to vote.
- In India, the losing parties accept the electoral verdict.
- India has the largest number of voters in the world.
- Match the following :
|a. It is necessary to keep the voters list up to date because||i. there is a fair representation of
all sections of our society
|b. Some constituencies are reserved for SCs and STs so that||ii. everyone has equal opportunity to elect their representative|
|c. Everyone has one and only one vote so that||iii. all candidates must have a fair chance of competing in elections|
|d. Party in power is not allowed to use government vehicles because||iv. some people may have moved away from the area where they voted last|
|a. It is necessary to keep the voters list up to date because||iv. some people may have moved away from the area where they voted last|
|b. Some constituencies are reserved for SCs and STs so that||i. there is a fair representation of
all sections of our society
|c. Everyone has one and only one vote so that||ii. everyone has equal opportunity to elect their representative|
|d. Party in power is not allowed to use government vehicles because||iii. all candidates must have a fair chance of competing in elections|
- List all the different election related activities mentioned in the chapter and arrange them in a time sequence, beginning with the first activity and ending with the last. Some of these activities are given below: releasing election manifestos; counting of votes; making of voters’ list; election campaign; declaration of election results; casting of votes; ordering of re-poll; announcing election schedule; filing nomination.
- Making of Voters’ List
- Announcing Election Schedule
- Releasing Election Manifesto
- Election Campaign
- Filing Nomination
- Casting of Votes
- Ordering of Repoll
- Counting of Votes
- Declaration of Election Results.
- Surekha is an officer in-charge of ensuring free and fair elections in an assembly constituency in a state. Describe what should she focus on for each of the following stages of election:
- Election campaign
- Polling day
- Counting day
- Election Campaign
She needs to maintain law & order and make sure one cannot appeal based on money & religion.
- Polling Day
She needs to ensure free and fair elections besides checking voters’ lists & ID.
- Counting day
Keep an eye on the counting process and make sure counting is fair.
- The table below gives the proportion of different communities among the candidates who won elections to the US Congress. Compare these to the proportion of these communities in the population of the US. Based on this, would you suggest a system of reservations in the US Congress? If yes, why and for which communities? If no, why not?
|Proportion of the community(in percent) in the|
|House of representatives||Population of US|
Yes, to Hispanics and Blacks because their representation in the US Congress is lower when compared to whites.
- Can we draw the following conclusions from the information given in this chapter? Give two facts to support your position for each of these.
- The Election Commission of India does not have enough powers to conduct free and fair elections in the country.
- There is a high level of popular participation in the elections in our country.
- It is very easy for the party in power to win an election.
- Many reforms are needed to make our elections completely free and fair.
- No. It is because:
The election commission can release the code of conduct and can also punish the violators.
At the time of elections, the respective authority works under the election commission and not the government.
Yes. The percentage of voters turnout has increase
An increase in people’s participation in election-related activities has also been observed.
Ruling party has lost elections several times.
Despite huge expenditures and campaigns, the ruling party has lost elections in the past.
Speedy trials in the court must be done for the contestant with criminal allegations. So that actual criminals should be debarred and honest candidates get a fair chance. Steps must be taken so that small parties or individuals get a fair chance while contesting for elections.
- Chinappa was convicted for torturing his wife for dowry. Satbir was held guilty of practicing untouchability. The court did not allow either of them to contest elections. Does this decision go against the principles of democratic elections?
No, because they have been proved guilty in the court.
9 Here are some reports of electoral malpractices from different parts of the world. Is there anything that these countries can learn from India to improve their elections? What would you suggest in each case?
- During an election in Nigeria, the officer in charge of counting votes deliberately increased the votes of one candidate and declared him elected. The court later found out that more than five lakh votes cast for one candidate were counted in favour of another.
- Just before elections in Fiji, a pamphlet was distributed warning voters that a vote for former Prime Minister, Mahendra Chaudhry will lead to bloodshed. This was a threat to voters of Indian origin.
- In the US, each state has its own method of voting, its own procedure of counting and its own authority for conducting elections. Authorities in the state of Florida took many controversial decisions that favoured Mr. Bush in the presidential elections in 2000. But no one could change those decisions.
- The agents from each political party that has contested in the election should be present while counting as done in India.
- Candidates or the political party should be identified through enquiry by election commission and should be debarred from participating in elections.
- Like India, the US too can have one election commission who can make rules and take care of the complete process.
- Here are some reports of malpractices in Indian elections. Identify what the problem in each case is. What should be done to correct the situation?
- Following the announcement of elections, the minister promised to provide financial aid to reopen the closed sugar mill.
- Opposition parties alleged that their statements and campaign was not given due attention in Doordarshan and All India Radio.
- An inquiry by the Election Commission showed that electoral rolls of a state contain the names of 20 lakh fake voters.
- The hoodlums of a political party were moving with guns, physically preventing supporters of other political parties from meeting the voters and attacking meetings of other parties.
- The announcement just after the election brokes code of conduct and the election commission should take necessary action.
- The election commission must ensure free and fair coverage to all the political parties in the media run by the government.
- Re-election must be announced as the report shows vote-rigging.
- It is illegal to use muscle power and money. So the political party must be banned.
- Ramesh was not in class when this chapter was being taught. He came the next day and repeated what he had heard from his father. Can you tell Ramesh what is wrong with these statements?
- Women always vote the way men tell them to. So what is the point of giving them the right to vote?
- Party politics creates tension in society. Elections should be decided by consensus not by competition.
- Only graduates should be allowed to stand as candidates for elections.
- Women are mature enough to make decisions independently, and the secret ballot system in elections ensures they can cast their votes freely.
- Competition is extremely important as it motivates a person to do better work than others so it must be encouraged.
- Being a graduate and understanding the problems in our society are not interrelated. Hence, it would be unfair if someone is not permitted to run for an election based on education qualification
We have provided you with short and detailed notes on Electoral Politics Class 9th Social Science and the Ncert Solutions For Class 9th Electoral Politics to help the students boost their concepts and get the gist of the lesson. Students can also be able to solve the back exercises and get an idea of how to write answers.